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  #121  
Old Posted Apr 29, 2021, 3:05 PM
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Research. New knowledge in seismic technology.

The design mechanisms and methods of the invention are intended to minimize problems related to the safety of structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and strong winds.

It is achieved by controlling the deformations of the structure.
Damage and deformation are closely related concepts since the control of deformations also controls the damage.
The invention controls deformations even if the earthquake has a long duration and intensity.
Adjusts the displacement at the limits of the elastic displacement region, preventing inelastic displacement.
According to the invention, this is achieved by a continuous pre-tensioning between the upper ends of the side walls and the foundation ground by joining the two parts into one body, like a sandwich.
Prestressing intensities are applied by anchoring and pulling mechanisms.
They consist of pre-tensioning tendons, which penetrate freely, the sides of the walls (with the help of pipes) as well as the length of drillings under them.
The lower ends of the tendons are anchored to the depths of the boreholes with mechanisms such as expanding anchors.
The upper end of the tendons is placed on the sides of the upper level of the walls, and is pre-stressed with hydraulic mechanisms, which impose compressive loads on the cross sections of the walls.

The traction of the tendons by the hydraulic mechanisms located at the upper ends of the sides of the walls, as well as the reaction to this traction coming from the lower anchored ends of the tendons at the depths of the drillings, create the connection of the walls with the ground.

1) The columns have great elasticity when the bending moment acts on them.
They usually bend and are unable to receive dynamic lateral seismic loads.
In a combination of walls and columns all lateral dynamic loads are received from the walls, because the columns are elastic and recede.
That is why the walls are the first to fail, and they do not fail because they do not have elasticity, but because they take on all the loads.
The columns receive only the static loads of the building.

2) The walls initially show little elasticity when the bending moment acts on them, and then they resist dynamically to the lateral seismic intensities.

3) Elongated large walls are considered to have a diaphragm function, that is, they are almost rigid.

4) Structures that consist entirely of reinforced concrete, are considered completely rigid structures with almost zero period.
The bending moment should theoretically be reported for columns and walls. In completely rigid constructions with diaphragm function for me the bending moment is wrong and I replace it with tipping torque
To avoid deformation which causes failures, I try to use large elongated walls in the design of the structures as well as completely rigid structures with a diaphragm function that have the perfect rigidity.

There is no failure without deformation so rigid structures should be the strongest structures in the earthquake, since they have great strength towards the earthquake. But this practically does not happen. Rigid structures are the first to fail in an earthquake.
Why is this happening?
We will look at these reasons below.
A rigid and high-rise building in a strong earthquake is more easily overturned than a building of the same size that rests only on elastic pillars.
Why is this happening?
The columns store seismic energy and release it in the opposite direction in each new seismic charge cycle, as does the spring. Rigid columns are overturned when the tipping torque is greater than the stability torque.
The dynamics of the walls are canceled due to overturning and the intensity is transferred to the horizontal load-bearing elements and the dynamics are taken over by their small cross sections.
That is, from the point of stability, when the wall passes to the point of tipping and then, the transfer of forces is diverted to all horizontal elements, with which the wall joins at the nodes.
When they begin to receive seismic loads, the horizontal elements react with torques in the opposite direction.
First they receive the stresses by reacting with elasticity, then with leaks until they exceed the breaking point and the construction collapses.
Here are the following remarks.

a) When the walls lose their eccentricity, they deflect the forces in the small cross sections of the horizontal elements and break them.
b) The dynamics of the wall trunks are great, but the dynamics that they could offer is canceled because they are easily overturned and beyond that the dynamics depend on the dynamics of the of the horizontal elements.
c) If we increase the cross sections of the horizontal elements to increase their dynamics, the inertia of the structure and the intensities of the earthquake also increase. This is a problem If we want to defeat the earthquake we must increase the dynamics of construction and reduce seismic loads.

We reduce the seismic loads with horizontal seismic insulation, and with the reduction of mass and height.
We reduce the mass by using light materials in the masonry such as the alpha block.
There is a problem for the increase of the dynamics, because by increasing the mass of the cross section that would give us additional dynamics, the seismic lateral forces also increase.
Solution to the problem.
If we can not increase the dynamics by increasing the mass, we can increase the necessary dynamics by drawing it from an external factor, that of the ground and transfer it to the construction with tendons and mechanisms of traction and anchoring.
This external force has no mass and does not create additional tensions of inertia.
It is transported on the construction for six reasons.
a) To help as an external force (without mass) the dynamic response of the structure, controlling the seismic displacements.
b) To deflect seismic forces outside the structure and send them into the ground, before they are directed to the weak small cross sections of the horizontal elements and break them.
c) To increase the dynamics of the walls to
1) the stability forces,
2) the bending moment forces
3) the shear base forces and the shear failure.

d) To increase the bearing capacity of the soil where needed.
e) To control the coordination of construction and ground.
f) To ensure the control of the displacements of the floors, so that they always remain inside the elastic displacement area in which no failures are observed, as well as to ensure the smooth oscillation of the structure preventing the creation of phase difference .
Cost.
It is the big factor that determines the design method of a construction.
As I said before, the method I propose is effective in rigid dynamic constructions (due to rigidity and because if we join all the sides of the wall with the ground, they also get a double lever which reduces the stresses), but they are expensive because they have a lot of concrete. Prefabricated houses, which are completely rigid and industrialized, have managed to reduce costs by half the cost of conventional constructions with pillars.

If the prefabricated houses put my patent, they will become seismically shielded and will be able to develop an unlimited number of floors in height.
Imagine if they became prefabricated skyscrapers, how much their cost would fall and how much their earthquake protection would increase.
Question
And why can't we build high-rise prefabricated buildings in seismic areas?
And why does the height of the prefabricated buildings not exceed two floors in seismic areas?

Answer 1) Tall rigid buildings such as prefabricated buildings are easily overturned.
2) They do not have beams to bend them, and what happens in combination with their dynamics is the following.
During the displacement, with great rigidity, (instead of bending the beams) there is a tendency of overturning which causes the rotation of the base foot, in the whole area of the construction.
At this stage two things can happen.
1) The overturning of the structure if it is high
2) With the partial overturning of the structure, most of the base loses its support from the ground.
The result is, 1) the overturning moment of the building, in contrast to the other opposite direction of torque, which is created by the vertical static loads, unsupported by the ground, create a huge shear failure that destroys the weakest sections, those above the nodes, of the window doors.
The method I propose stops the overturning of rigid buildings and the construction does not lose the support of the ground because it makes it one with the ground like a sandwich!
Experiment 2.41 g natural earthquake, with the method I suggest https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=27s Experiment Without the new method https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE&t=9s

Research. New knowledge in seismic technology.

1) I introduce a new external force without mass, coming from the ground, onto the structure, to help the structure to respond to the earthquake and to receive and deflect seismic loads, outside the structure, into the ground, thus controlling the displacements of the structure which deform it above the breaking point and knock it down.

2) I built a mechanism which is the first mechanism in the world that has the ability from the foundation surface with the help of hydraulic jacks to exert horizontal pressure on the ground towards the slopes of a borehole, along its entire height, and at the same time to exert vertical pressures on the ground surface, before the construction of the project.

The result of this technique is to compact the ground from the foundation surface and in all directions, in order to stabilize on the one hand and to obtain a strong anchorage of the mechanism, twice the design intensities. Filling the borehole (after condensing) with concrete offers a deep foundation higher than the width they make today, because it has the ability to receive greater intensities of compression and traction.

3) I am the first to insert the double pre-tension using the same pre-tension tendon. I apply the first pre-tension between the ground surface and the anchoring mechanism, and the second pre-tension between the nodes of the top level and the anchor that preceded the ground. The result is that the construction joins the ground like a sandwich.
This mechanism does not differ from the prestressed cantilevers of the bridges which rest on pedestals.

Last edited by seismic; Apr 29, 2021 at 3:19 PM.
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  #122  
Old Posted May 7, 2021, 8:54 PM
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My method or existing seismic technology is the best;

Brief Description of the Invention The principal object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as of the method for constructing building structures utilizing the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention is to minimize the aforesaid problems associated with the safety of construction structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes and very high lateral winds. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the building structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich. Said pre-stressing is applied by means of the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects. Said mechanism comprises a steel cable crossing freely in the centre the structure’s vertical support elements and also the length of a drilling beneath them. Said steel cable’s lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the walls of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. Said steel cable’s top end is tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism, exerting a continuous uplifting force.
The pulling force applied to the steel cable by means of the hydraulic mechanism and the reaction to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end of it generate the desired compression in the construction project.
The Patent Idea
We have placed on a table two columns, one column screwed on the table, and the other simply put on the table. If one shifts on the table, the unbolted column will be overthrown. The bolted column withstands the lateral loading. We do exactly the same in every column of a building to withstand more lateral earthquake loading. That is done, by simply screwing it to the ground. This pretension between the roof of the structure and the soil has been globally disclosed for the first time.
The invention stops the bending of the bearing vertical concrete elements by imposing compressive stresses on the cross sections. as well as the tipping moment, through the anchoring mechanism which anchors strongly under the foundation ground. It also creates an improvement in the bearing capacity of the soil in both compression and traction. Prefabricated structures made of reinforced concrete are the ideal constructions in which the invention has high efficiency and utility for the following reasons.
1) Prefabricated reinforced concrete structures are rigid and the imposition of compressive stresses on the cross section makes them even more rigid and improves the shear of the base. 2) The mathematical formula to find the moment of inversion is (force X height and the product is divided by the width of the wall) If we have a prefabricated two-storey reinforced concrete structure 7 meters high and with a frame width of 4x4 meters, which accepts a lateral force of 80 tons, the tipping moment will be (7X80 / 4 =) 140 tons If we place 2 tendons on each side of the prefabricated house, then each one must create a moment of stability> 70 tons.
If the same construction was based on 4 columns of dimensions 0.40X0.40X 7.00 meters then the moment of stability of the tendons would be much greater. (7Χ80 =) 560 tons 560/2 = 280 tons. So there is a big difference in dynamics, between the choice of columns and walls, and the stress of the tendons to the tensile stresses, and the anchors to the ground adhesion and the cross sections to the compression. So the choice of prefabricated is better.
3) Prefabricated houses are also industrialized and cost half the money that another construction costs.
These three main reasons are where they make the patent on prefabricated houses profitable. Both cheap and anti-seismic.
I'm not an expert in existing technology, but I'm very much an expert in the technology I suggest.
Please correct me if I am wrong in the following that I will say ....
Elasticity stores seismic energy and returns it to each seismic load cycle.
No failures are observed in this area of ​​elastic displacement However, seismic damping is created in the elastic displacement region by the friction of the materials which produce heat.
That is, they convert kinetic energy into thermal energy.
Prefabricated houses are completely rigid with almost zero period, and have zero seismic damping.
This is not good for prefabricated houses because seismic damping only does good.
When the ground acceleration is large the elastic construction creates large curves in the trunk of the beam and the pillar, and the elasticity begins to be lost and many small cracks are created at the ends of the beams.
These small cracks are the so-called plastic failure areas or so-called plasticity.
The mechanism of plasticity releases seismic energy, and this is good for construction.
This excess displacement outside the elastic region is the inelastic displacement region in which the plasticity mechanism occurs, but the structure does not return to its original position as it returns to the elastic displacement region.
If the earthquake is too big and the displacements will be too big and the curves in the trunk of the beam and the pillar will be too big and will create big cracks above the breaking point, and if there are many the construction will collapse.
Here's the weak point of the existing design.
In large earthquakes the existing design fails to control the inelastic displacement and the structures collapse.
If you increase the cross sections of the elements, the elasticity is lost, the seismic intensities increase as the mass increases, and the walls drop high torques at the base, due to the lack of elasticity.
Plasticity is also lost.
These stiffening factors create a large tipping moment in prefabricated houses, which creates a recoil in the total base area of ​​the house.
The building loses ground support.
As a result, a large torque, in the opposite direction of the overturning torque is created, which is responsible for the failures of prefabricated houses.
What the mechanism of the invention does is to create a moment of stability to balance the overturning moment, so that the construction does not lose ground support.
In high-rise prefabricated houses the problem grows.
With the patent we will build prefabricated skyscrapers, with lower cost and greater seismic response.
This stability force, the mechanism takes it from the ground, so it has no mass to increase the inertia intensities.
On the other hand, the mechanism deflects all the forces of the earthquake into the ground, preventing them from being directed to the cross sections of the beams.
Still The pre-tensioning in the cross-sections of the prefabricated houses increases their dynamics by eliminating the cutting of the base, and the shear failures.
Loose soils can be sandy or clay and there is definitely water in them.
In a medium-sized earthquake, these soils recede and the structures either tilt or collapse.
The mechanism of the invention is a tool which not only pre-compacts loose soils by exerting hydraulic pressures on the horizontal and vertical axis, (before construction) to increase their bearing capacity,
but strongly tightens the construction to the ground by assuming static loads and traction loads of the base.
Successfully dealing with both seismic waves (P) and catastrophic waves (S) without losing traction with the ground.
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  #123  
Old Posted May 12, 2021, 5:34 PM
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According to drawings (A1) (B1) are given, in a table, the axial loads N of the vertical tendons of the patent ( https://www.scirp.org/html/6-1880388_59888.htm ) for the following case of an ideal residential building, to deal with a very strong earthquake:

TABLE A Floor plan of the building 10.00m × 10.00m, square with nine (9) columns with grid 5.m

TABLE B Floor plan of a building 20.00m × 20.00m, square with 24 columns with grid 5.m

A.1 Ground floor height 3.50m
Α.2 Two-storey, total height 7.00m
A.3 Three-storey, total height 10.50m
A.4 Four floors, total height 14.00m
A.5 Five-storey, total height 17.50m
A.6 Six floors, total height 21.00m

Depending on the quality of the steel to be used, is also the cross section of the tendon.
The forces and cross-sections correspond to the leakage state of the steel (without any safety factor).
The tables and drawings in the attachment in the link
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...90_AXIAL_LOADS
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  #124  
Old Posted May 25, 2021, 7:51 PM
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Why do we need plasticity if we can control deformation?

The columns are elastic with low dynamics. The walls, the wells, are rigid with great dynamics. The columns when rocking in the elastic displacement area consume seismic energy because through friction they convert the seismic kinetic energy into thermal energy. When the earthquake is large and they undergo inelastic displacement, they create cracks in the beams, releasing the seismic energy (plasticity) But the truth is that they offer almost no dynamic reaction because they recede due to elasticity and allow the rigid walls to absorb all the force of the earthquake. For this reason the columns in static calculations are used to receive only static loads while the walls to receive both static and dynamic seismic loads. For this reason the walls fail first in the earthquake. That which is elastic bends (columns) and that which is rigid (walls) is overturned. If we create anchoring of the wall with the foundation ground + apply compressive forces to its cross section then neither it will bend nor it will be overturned. The shear force of base will pick up the wall without any problem. This was shown by the simulation and the experiments I did .. The shear failure as well as the critical failure area will disappear along with the bend. Deformation along with failures will be eliminated. Why do we need plasticity if we can control deformation? Pre-tension walls are considered elastic in high-rise structures. The walls simply show smaller cracks due to prestressing.

Simulation and numerical investigation of seismic system behavior
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ystem_behavior
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  #125  
Old Posted Jun 28, 2021, 8:06 PM
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Experiments
1) If we place a two-storey (under scale) building with corner walls and a bed base on the ground and shake it hard it will have the reaction shown in the video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE
2) If we place a two-storey (under scale) building entirely of concrete and with a bed base on the ground and shake it hard it will have the reaction shown in the video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ux8TzWYvuQ0&t=103s
3) If we place a two-storey (under scale) building with corner walls and with a bed base on the ground and screw the bed base with the ground and shake it hard, it will have the reaction shown in the video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZsSJJhOfwq0
4) If we place a two-story (under scaled) building with corner walls and a bed base on the ground and screw the ends of the walls to the ground and shake it hard with the greatest seismic acceleration ever made in this world, it will have this reaction shown by the video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=150s
5) If we place a two-storey (under scale) building made entirely of reinforced concrete and with a bed base on the ground and screw the ends of the walls to the ground and shake it vigorously, it will have the reaction shown in the video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA
Question
Why do we just place the structures on the ground and not screw them on it?
With the method of designing, anchoring the nodes of the highest level with the ground, I hope to deflect the intensity of the earthquake in stronger areas than those areas that are driven today. These strong areas have the ability to absorb these intensities, preventing the relevant drifts and therefore the intensity that develops throughout the body is limited and return them to the ground where they came from, thus removing large tensions and failures over the load-bearing structure of the building while ensuring a stronger bearing capacity of the foundation ground. With the appropriate sizing design of the walls and their placement in appropriate places, we prevent the torsional baklin that appears in asymmetric and metal high-rise structures. General. The imposition of loads on the cross-sections of the walls by the nodes of the top level of the walls of a structure + their anchoring to the foundation ground, using the mechanism of the invention, deflects the stresses in the ground thus preventing the displacements of the control node and all the developing stresses on the trunk of the bearing elements caused by the inelastic bending deformations. The capacity of the walls to the cutting base is also increased by 50%.
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  #126  
Old Posted Jul 7, 2021, 1:53 PM
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A scientific method must prove the results experimentally
First make an observation, create a hypothesis, and draw conclusions and refine the hypothesis.
The scientific method begins with the "observation" of one or more natural phenomena which are constantly repeated and we take them for granted.
The following is a hypothesis of a model based on the "observations" we have made before, examining new data resulting from the synthesis of the natural phenomena of the hypothetical model.
Then we examine <experimally> the data resulting from the synthesis of the natural pThe more experiments and hypotheses are repeated and agreed upon, the more the approach to reality and truth is enhanced.
I noticed that
1) If we screw an object on the floor it does not tip over.
2) If we compress a stack of unbound books then we can move them without breaking the stack even in a horizontal position.
3) I noticed that a part of an iron scaffolding alone can not even stand upright, while if we connect it to another with a cross link it is very difficult to overturn.
4) I noticed that when we lift a car with a mechanical jack on soft ground, first the ground recedes until it condenses and then lifts the car. I also noticed that as long as the jack lifts the car it is impossible to pull it out and take it out from under the car by hand.
5) I noticed that when the branches of the trees bend in the elastic area, one side of them stretches and grows and the other side of them compresses and shrinks. But I noticed that if you put a string in a shooting bow it loses its elasticity in one direction, and if you join the two bow bows together they become rigid.
6) I noticed that a wood rod before it breaks has an elastic deformation in which no cracks are observed, and if we remove the force that causes the deformation, the rod will return to its original form.
7) I noticed that the trains have front and rear springs or hydraulic systems to absorb the stresses that develop when they collide with each other.
I take these <observations> for granted because they are constantly repeated in our daily lives.
Based on the above data <observations> I constructed a <hypothetical> seismic model which mainly aims to stop the inelastic deformation of the vertical structural elements of the structures, as well as their total or partial overturning.
The constructions consist of the vertical and the horizontal structural elements of the bearing organism, which are joined in the nodes and necessarily the deformation of one is transferred to the other.
Deformation of the joints can occur either from the tendency of the columns to overturn, or from the bending of their trunk. If the bend is within the elastic range there is no problem, so we must prevent inelastic displacement and tipping moment if we do not want failures.
1) I stopped the overturning moment of the walls by joining their base to the ground.
2) In order not to cut their trunk near the base by the abrupt displacement of the ground (cutting base) I imposed compression on their cross section.
3) I used walls instead of pillars so that they do not tip over easily and put a lot of strain on the mechanism of the anchoring in the ground. To have a reversal reaction in both directions of displacement caused by the rocking of the earthquake, I anchored the sides of the wall to the ground on both sides.
4) I made a similar mechanism like the mechanical jack of the car, which under hydraulic traction expands and tightens firmly in the ground at the depths of a borehole to then anchor with the help of a tendon the base of the wall to the ground.
5) In the rigid wall, in which in its cross section there are imaginary, the two joined arches, I applied pressure on its two sides with tendons without relevance to stop its inelastic deformation.
6) By imposing compression on the cross section of the wall, its elasticity is not lost and it does not form cracks.
7) To help the cross-sections of the walls to receive part of the elastic stresses, removing these stresses from the anchoring mechanisms, and on the other hand to smoothly and not abruptly dampen the stresses of the mechanisms, I placed a hydraulic system on the upper part of the tendon. or a spring or a tire.
Experiments
I did two separate experiments with the same experimental model but under different conditions.
The first is prestressed and packed with the seismic base and the second simulates the current seismic design.
With my own design method
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=8s
With the trampled method.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE&t=57s
The conclusion is yours to make.
The strengths of the mechanism in different sizes, placed at different depths and types of soils, remain to be investigated.
Anchoring the mechanism to the rock is considered safe.
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  #127  
Old Posted Aug 30, 2021, 8:14 PM
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The new and completely seismic design method.

The structures in the earthquake collapse due to the deformation factor. If we check the deformation we will also check the failures. The deformation of the structures increases when the acceleration of the ground is great, the duration of the earthquake is long, and if the period of the soil and the construction coincide to be the same, the coordination is created, which increases the deformation. Catastrophic deformation is created by three factors 1) The inelastic bending displacement of the bearing elements 2) The tipping moment of the walls. 3) The subsidence of the soil. The inelastic bending displacement of all load-bearing elements (beams, columns and walls) is stopped if we prevent the bending of the vertical load-bearing elements. The bending of the vertical load-bearing elements is stopped when we choose (instead of placing columns) large walls of reinforced concrete of diaphragm function. The stiffness of the walls increases when we apply to them (using prestressing tendons) transverse compressive forces in their cross section With this design method, we stop the deformation resulting from the bending of the transverse support elements which deflects and bends and the trunks of the horizontal support elements. Wall overturning torque. What does not bend is more easily overturned. To prevent the rigid prestressing wall from tipping over, simply join the bottom of the prestressing tendon with a deep ground anchoring mechanism. With this design we stop the overturning of the wall which deforms the beams and breaks them. The retreat of the ground is prevented by the anchoring of the ground mechanism With this design we prevented the three factors that deform and destroy the structures in the earthquake. Basically if we check the deformation of the structures then it does not matter if the earthquake has great acceleration, long duration, and is coordinated with the construction, because we deflect the forces of the earthquake into the ground, preventing them from being directed at the cross sections of the nodes and breaking them.
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  #128  
Old Posted Sep 16, 2021, 1:17 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by dustinchase View Post
great. i heared that nowadays people can get signal into their phone about seismic activity in their region
No one can predict an earthquake in time, day, place, and magnitude. He may receive an earthquake alert on his mobile phone a few seconds before the earthquake strikes.
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  #129  
Old Posted Sep 16, 2021, 1:22 PM
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The ultimate seismic method
The invention applies compression to the sides of the diaphragm walls andsimultaneous anchoring to the ground using piles with deep expanding anchorages in order to stop the deformation which causes failures and collapse in the earthquake.

The 7 indisputable achievements of this new seismic design are listed below.
1) Dynamic response from the ground without the presence of mass whichintensifies inertia in the earthquake This is a remarkable achievement.
2) The deflection of the forces of inertia in the ground stops the deformation, the stress and finally the failure of the bearing elements.
3) The control of the displacements of the floors in each cycle of seismic loading, with dynamics coming from the ground makes it possible to minimize the eigenperiod in the coordination.
4) The problem of shear failure that occurs in the mechanism of relevance (steel concrete cooperation mechanism) is eliminated due to the high resistance of steel to tensile, which turns the failure into a shear cause. The method I use only applies compressive strength to the concrete cross section without any shear stress.
5) The shear failure also occurs in the cross sections where there are tensile stresses. The method I use applies a force of compression to neutralize the tensile forces.
6) The base shear is a key failure factor which is quantitatively eliminated by imposing compressive stresses on the cross section.
7) Improving the bearing capacity of the ground by constructing stronger and more zones of influence under the base, prevents failures from landslides.
To stop the deformation which is responsible for the failures and the collapse of the structures, we must stop the bending of the cross sections of the bearing, as well as their moment of inversion, which is created by two opposite forces, that of inertia on the one hand, and this territorial acceleration on the other hand.
To stop the bending more effectively, we use rigid walls instead of columns.
To stop the tipping moment more effectively we use walls instead of pillars, on which we impose compression + anchoring to the ground at all their ends.

The walls are the most rigid, and have a double lever, (that of height and that of width)
These two advantages of walls help us to stop bending and tipping more effectively than if we use pillars.
In the anti-seismic research laboratory at the
Technical University of Athens, a simulation was performed to draw useful conclusions for this method.
But they did not understand the full method of operation of the invention and made me a simulation which does not fully represent the design method I mention.Instead of installing walls, which bend and overturn as difficult as possible,they installed columns, which bend and overturn as easily as possible.
They also removed the anchoring of the columns with the ground.
The only element of this method they considered was the imposition of loads on the cross-sections of the columns by the nodes of the upper level.
However, without using the complete design methodology, the shear of the base was quantitatively improved, the bearing capacity of the construction was significantly increased, and the displacement of the control node was significantly reduced.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ystem_behavior
experiments with the invention https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=32s
and, without the invention https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE


(7) (PDF) The ultimate seismic method. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publica...seismic_method [accessed Sep 16 2021].
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  #130  
Old Posted Nov 20, 2021, 6:29 PM
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Experimental findings

EXPERIMENT MEASUREMENTS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q Acceleration measurement. I did various micro-scale experiments with an essay scale 1 to 7, mass 900kg with double grid reinforcement 5X5 cm Φ / 1.5mm, with micro-scale concrete material. I used Sand with cement in a ratio of 6 to 1 Oscillation width 0.15m Displacement 0.30m Full oscillation 0.60m Frequency 2 Hz Acceleration to (g) a = (- (2 * π * 2) ^ 2 * 0,15) / 9.81 a = 3.14x2 = 6.28x2 = 12.56X12.56 = 157.754X0.15 = 23.6631 / 9.81 = 2.41g of natural earthquake. Two floors 900 kg 450 kg each Inertia and shear base measurement Acceleration 2.41g X 900kg = inertia and base cutting 2169 kg Each of the 4 walls has a cutting base 2169kg / 4 = cutting. base 542.24kg Rollover torque measurement To find the tipping moment of each wall we must first find the lateral force received by each wall per floor. So we say 2169 kg / 2 = 1084.5 kg of inertia per floor / 4 walls = 271.2 kg of inertia force is received by each wall per floor. To find the overturning moment of the height of the walls we add all the heights of the floors, ie (0.67 + 1.34) = 2.01m and we multiply them by the kg of inertia that each floor wall receives per floor which is 271.2kg The result is 2.01X271.02 = Rolling torque for each wall 545.1kg If we want to create a reciprocal moment of stability so that the wall does not tip over, it must be greater than> 545.1kg Each wall gets a tipping torque of 545.1kg and the 4 walls together get a torque of 2180 kg The weight of the construction in immobility is 900 kg That is, a two-storey specimen weighing 900 kg with an acceleration of 2.41g creates a tipping torque of 2180/900 = 2.42 times its weight.
Here in this video you can see what happens when we disconnect the construction ground connection.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE
And here in this video you can see what happens when there is a construction ground connection.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q
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Old Posted Nov 25, 2021, 10:06 PM
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Failures and solutions in seismic design.

Failures and solutions in seismic design.
Author Ioannis Lymperis
In an earthquake, the displacement of the ground creates an opposite inertia force, the magnitude of which depends on the weight of the mass and the acceleration of the structure.
The construction is deformed and creates failures up to collapse. If we stop the deformation of the construction we will stop the damages since these two factors are directly related. To stop the deformation there is no other solution than to impose reaction forces, that is, forces in the opposite direction from these forces of inertia in order for a balance of forces to occur and the deformation to stop.
Today the science of civil engineering makes two big mistakes.
The first mistake is that it tries to create opposite balancing forces with the small cross sections of the beams and columns and walls. In small earthquakes it succeeds, but in large earthquakes with duration it has a problem. The problem they face is that as they increase the cross sections and reinforcement to increase the response of the structure to the earthquake, so do the mass of the structure which creates greater inertia intensities. The higher the height of the structure, the greater the inertia and strain of the cross-sections around the nodes. The result is to increase the cross sections of the reinforcement and at the same time the cost of the constructions without achieving a result of static adequacy in high acceleration and duration of earthquakes.
The fact that the structures do not collapse is due to the fact that these earthquakes do not happen often.
The second mistake they make in design is that they put together two materials that one is in favor of tensile strength and the other is in favor of compressive strength. I am referring to steel and concrete. Steel has excellent tensile strength and concrete has high compressive strength. They place them to work together using the mechanism of relevance. This mechanism has a problem because it forces the concrete to receive shear forces. Concrete does not withstand shear, and the correlation mechanism forces it to absorb large shear forces, which are created at the interface of the coating concrete and steel. The result is a breakdown failure in the overlay concrete, the loss of concrete-steel cooperation, and the cancellation of the use of steel to obtain tensile so that the structure collapses.
This problem grows, because the mechanism of relevance, among other things, turns the wall into a huge lever which lowers high torques at the base.
This means that it creates a critical failure area,
that is, an area in the trunk of the wall near the base where the tensions multiply and create a potential difference in traction.
The result is catastrophic, because the potential difference in adhesion below the critical failure area is smaller, so that the reinforcement can be easily extracted through the concrete.
And the construction collapses.
Consider that a construction of a finished floor of 100 sq.m. weighs 100 tons and has 3500 kg of reinforcement inside. A single reinforcing steel of the 40 mm diameter construction lifts 120 tons before failing. The problem that 3500 kg of reinforcement is not enough to keep the construction upright in a big earthquake is due to what I mentioned above.
When you identify the exact problem you can find the solution and I did this to save the structures from collapse in the great earthquake with duration.
I will tell you the solution to the above problems, which reduces the steel reinforcement and increases the dynamics of reinforced concrete structures.
1) Civil engineers design so that the cross sections of the bearing create the required equilibrium of equilibrium forces.
This is incorrect. The right thing to do is to drive the inertia forces out of the structure before they are directed to the cross-sections, and send them into the ground.
2) Response forces should not come from the cross sections of the load-bearing elements, but from external forces which are transferred to the structure to balance the inertia forces and prevent deformations and failures.
3) The response forces must not have mass (kg) so as not to increase the inertia intensities.
4) Steel should only be subjected to tensile strength (in which it has super strengths), and concrete only compressive forces (where it has ultra strengths.)
5) We must exclude any shear failure resulting from either bending, tensile, or due to the ultra-tensile strength of steel which turns the failure into a "shear shape" in the mechanism (of relevance.)
6) We must take soil samples in each construction to know what soil the construction is based on, what risks it hides and if we need to strengthen it.
7) We must create seismic energy damping mechanisms and systems that prevent the coordination mechanism. That is, to prevent the the same period of soil and construction which leads to the increase of displacement and deformation of the elements to infinity, within the time duration
How do we achieve all this by reducing the cost of construction?
Let's start with the critical failure area. When you bend a pillar, one side is stretched and the other is compressed.
Tensile is the intense state in which a body exerts opposite forces on a body that tend to lengthen it.
The force of compression is the intense state in which opposite forces are exerted on a body that tend to compress it.
These forces of compression and tension have something in common and that is that they have the opposite direction.
Opposite direction means that the forces either meet somewhere or somewhere separate their direction. The point where forces meet for compression and the point that separates their upward and downward direction for tension is called the "critical failure zone". In the critical failure zone the forces have their maximum value and that is the reason the column cross-section fails in this "critical failure area" A wall or wall is more difficult to bend than a square-cross-section column. The critical failure area in the elastic column is created by the bending of its trunk, while in the rigid wall it is created by shear. Shear exists where there is a tensile failure and always has a direction intersecting with the direction of the tensile axis.
How do I remove the critical failure area from bending or shear?
That is, I eliminate bending and shear.
In order for there to be a critical area of failure due to bending and shear, there must be tension. Without tension, none of this exists. How do we remove tensile? We remove the tension by applying opposite compressive forces to compress the cross section and create a balance of forces. In this way a balance of forces occurs and the tension is eliminated and with it the bending, the shear failure and the critical area.
This method is called prestressing and is not my invention.
Force that intersects its cross section near the base
The acceleration of the earthquake and the reaction of the mass of the structure in the opposite direction create the inertia equal to the mass in kilograms on the acceleration. The inertia and the force that intersects the cross section near the base are the same. This force is the one that cuts in two a column of books that we are going to move abruptly. The same force cuts the wall at a sharp acceleration of the earthquake.
If we put a force up and down with our hands the column of books will not be cut in two. The same goes for the wall. If we apply compression to its cross section we will not fail This is called prestressing and it is not my invention.
Shear failure of the coating concrete due to the ultra-tensile strength of the steel.
The cooperation between concrete and steel is achieved through the mechanism of relevance. The term relevance defines the combined action of the mechanisms that prevent the relative slippage between the bars of the reinforcement and the concrete that surrounds them. The individual mechanisms of relevance are the adhesion, the friction and, in the case of ribbed steel bars, the resistance of the concrete which is trapped between the ribs. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered equivalent to the development of shear stresses in the concrete and steel interface. When these stresses reach their limit value, the relevance is destroyed, and the coating concrete along the bars is destroyed and the steel bars are detached.
Basically this failure problem arises because there must normally be an equivalent balance of forces between the two materials which does not exist. When the steel is stretched the concrete tries to hold it. However, the ultra-tensile strength of steel and the low shear strength of overlapping concrete are incompatible. For this reason, in an earthquake, the overlapping concrete breaks and the cooperation of the two materials ceases with catastrophic results. For this reason you will never see in the rubble of earthquakes even an iron cut.
Is there a solution to this problem?
Yes there is. We use the mechanism of relevance as a secondary reinforcement, and as a primary reinforcement we use prestressing. That is, we impose compression on the cross section of the wall, with prestressed tendons without relevance, which the concrete can withstand just fine and we eliminate the failure from shear. This is the reason that while we use 3500 kg of reinforcement in a construction of 100 sq.m. (because concrete does not withstand shear)
So far I have explained to you that with the pre-tensioning method we quantitatively eliminate the failure from the cutting base, the shear failure, how we eliminate the bending and the critical failure area where the greatest intensities are concentrated.
How do we eliminate the potential difference around the critical failure area?
Relevance shows a failure mechanism always close to the trunk of the wall near the base. The forces of relevance from the critical area and below are smaller than those that have the opposite direction and act from the critical area upwards when attracted.
A potential difference is created and the steel is extracted even more easily from the bottom of the critical area. In the pre-tension there is no potential difference since there is no critical separation area in the direction of the intensities.
How do I remove the coordination.
When the construction ground period coincides to be the same, coordination occurs.
During the coordination of ground construction, each displacement of the nodes of the highest level of the structure grows more and more towards infinity, with the result that within the seismic duration the structure is destroyed. So far this problem is unsolvable.
I solved it by applying prestressing to the cross sections to control the deformation due to bending, and anchoring the prestressing tendon to the foundation ground using deep ground anchorages, to stop the construction ground coordination. That is, to control the displacement of the nodes of the highest level with an external force coming from the ground. By controlling the deformation of the wall trunk through the pre-tensioning mechanism and the rigid walls, and controlling the overturning torque of the wall by anchoring it to the ground on all its sides, I ensured the control of the construction ground coordination, preventing torque transfer to the joints. in this way I ensured the control of the deformations of the bearing organism. And we know that without inelastic deformation there would be no failures since by controlling the deformation you also control the failures.
With the method of designing, anchoring the nodes of the highest level with the ground, I hope to deflect the lateral inertial intensities of the earthquake in the ground, thus removing large tensions and failures over the load-bearing body of the building while ensuring a stronger capacity. of the foundation soil. With the appropriate sizing design of the walls and their placement in appropriate places, I also prevent torsional buckling that occurs in asymmetric and metal high-rise structures.
How to remove the wall lever that lowers high torques at the base?
Without torque in the trunk of the wall and without tension, there is no lever arm since the forces of torque are directed into the ground. Without tensile there is no bending deformation or shear failure. And where do these tensions lead? They are driven into the ground.
The design method I use consists of strong ground anchors which, after first being firmly anchored to the ground, transfer with unrelated tendons the anchoring force on all sides of the walls in order to create forces in response to the forces of inertia and deflect them in. to the ground excluding their transport over the cross sections.
Basically, the anchoring of the sides of the walls to the ground prevents the wall from overturning and the transfer of torques to the cross-sections around the nodes, by shifting these forces into the ground and if we apply pre-tension with the same tendons at the cross-section of the walls we prevent bending. of their trunk the shear failure of the overlapping concrete and the cross-sections, and we quantify the response to the cutting base. The drilling of holes for the placement of our anchors shows the composition of the soil as well as the dangers it hides. The expandable anchoring mechanism together with the concrete filling grout of the drilling, provide strong support in the construction even on soft ground.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...seismic_design
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