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Childs/Nordenson 1 World Trade Center

New York City NY United States

Floor Count70
Building Uses
 - office
 - observation
Structural Types
 - highrise
 - glass
 - steel
 - concrete, reinforced

 Heights ValueSource / Comments 
Antenna2000 ft
Roof1776 ft
The roof of the observation area at the top of the cabled portion of the tower.
Lower roof1000 ft

Architect: David Childs
Lead Designer and Structural Engineer: Guy Nordenson

This early version of the "Freedom Tower" was the source of the contentious and now infamous argument and power struggle between David Childs, the architect of the tower, and Daniel Libeskind, the World Trade Center Site Master Planner and "Collaborating Architect" of the tower.

Libeskind complained that he was shut out of the design process by Childs; and more importantly, he claimed that the design of the tower did not conform to the Master Plan for the World Trade Center site that he had designed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the owner of the World Trade Center Site.

The plan called for the tower to have a sloped roof, and an asymmetrical spire reaching 1776 feet (541.3m) to invoke the image of the Statue of Liberty's upraised arm.

Libeskind demanded that changes be made to the design of the tower to make it conform to the those standards. The demands triggered a high profile dispute between Childs and Libeskind that threatened to delay the redevelopment of the World Trade Center.

After long negotiations and the intervention of NY Governor George Pataki, Childs was forced to make changes to the design of the tower. The result is the so-called "final" design of the Freedom Tower that was released in December of 2003.

That design can be found here:


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Drawing by Andrea Tocchini
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