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The Pinnacle

22-24 Bishopsgate, City of London
London ENG United Kingdom

Construction Dates
  Intended completion date2015
Floor Count63
Floor Area88,000 m²
Building Uses
 - office
 - observation
 - restaurant
 - retail
Structural Types
 - highrise
Architectural Style
 - structural expressionism
 - glass
 - steel

 Heights ValueSource / Comments 
Pinnacle1000 ft
Roof945 ft''

• Architect: Kohn Pederson Fox Associates.

• Investors: Arab Investments Limited, Arup, Arup Fire, Arup Wind Team, Brookfield Multiplex Ltd., DIFA-Fonds Nr. 1, Union Investment Real Estate AG, dp9.
• Engineers: DSA Engineering, Emmer Pfenninger Partner AG, FPD Savills, Georg Penker, Gordon Ingram Associates, Hilson Moran Partnership Ltd., Jappsen Ingenieure Berlin GmbH, Mace Ltd., Reef Associates Ltd.

• The height has been reduced from 1,007ft to 945ft after a request by the Civil Aviation Authority, according flight path of London's City Airport.

• An earlier Murphy/Jahn Associates 50-storey proposal of a 216m tall building in same site of 6-8 Bishopsgate and 22-24 Bishopsgate was against English Heritage distracting the view of St. Paul's Cathedral and was discharged.

• First to be 64-storeys, 307.25m tall, 140,147m² had objections from the Civil Aviation Authority and its height was reduced in 4 floors, less 19.35m in December 2005. Plans for increasing floor area was made on December 1, 2006, with same volume but include 3 floors, but only new cladding and larger basement was accepted.

• It has 60 main 2.4 metre piles deep 60 metres, each of which required concrete to be 13h continuously poured.

• 3-storeys at bottom of it are publicly accessible, a sky lobby and restaurant on the 43rd floor which are London's highest public vantage point.

• The ventilated façade system, which gain solar radiation and natural ventilation, also maximizing natural light, reducing use of eletricity, consists of overlapping flat panels which resembles snakeskin, and none curved panels glass were used.

• Its base has a concave canopy, whether the top is 5 centimeters different with a design that resembles a helter-skelter, tower's nickname.

• The building has 52 office financial floors at levels 3 to 9, although, 57th floor has double height.

• It has biomass heating and ground water heat exchangers, together 90,000 photovoltaic cells integrated in 2000m² of façade and generate 200 kilowatts of electricity.

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